Route 28 Summits

2001 Route 28 Summit Speakers






The Id of Stem Cells

Redefining stem cell plasticity and identity for CNS repair

01 Summit Topic / 01 Speakers / 01 Schedule / 01 Location / 01 Participants and Proposals


2001 Summit Speakers


Arturo Alvarez-Buylla

Adult Neural Stem Cells

Whose your daddy?

Alvarez-Buylla A, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Tramontin AD. A unified hypothesis on the lineage of neural stem cells. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2001 Apr;2(4):287-293.

Alvarez-Buylla A, Herrera DG, Wichterle H. The subventricular zone: source of neuronal precursors for brain repair. Prog Brain Res. 2000;127:1-11. Review.

Astral Projection

Doetsch F, Caille I, Lim DA, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Alvarez-Buylla A. Subventricular zone astrocytes are neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. Cell 1999;97:703-16.


All they really need is direction and good motivation…

Lim DA, Tramontin AD, Trevejo JM, Herrera DG, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Alvarez-Buylla A. Noggin antagonizes BMP signaling to create a niche for adult neurogenesis. Neuron. 2000 Dec;28(3):713-26.

Conover JC, Doetsch F, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Gale NW, Yancopoulos GD, Alvarez-Buylla A. Disruption of Eph/ephrin signaling affects migration and proliferation in the adult subventricular zone. Nat Neurosci 2000;3:1091-1097.


Carrolee Barlow

Profiling and Functional Genomics

in Brain Research

 Expressing what's on your mind

Lockhart DJ, Barlow C. Expressing what's on your mind: DNA arrays and the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2001 Jan;2(1):63-8. Review.

Sandberg R, Yasuda R, Pankratz DG, Carter TA, Del Rio JA, Wodicka L, Mayford M, Lockhart DJ, Barlow C. Regional and strain-specific gene expression mapping in the adult mouse brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Sep 26;97(20):11038-43.

A taxi in where????

Allen DM, van Praag H, Ray J, Weaver Z, Winrow CJ, Carter TA, Braquet R, Harrington E, Ried T, Brown KD, Gage FH, Barlow C. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated is essential during adult neurogenesis. Genes Dev. 2001 Mar 1;15(5):554-66.

Barlow, C., Liyanage, M., Moens, P., Deng, C.X., Ried, T., and Wynshaw-Boris, A. Partial rescue of the severe prophase I defects of Atm-deficient mice by p53 or p21 mutant alleles. Nature Genet., 1997, 17, 453-456.

Barlow, C., Hirotsune, S., Paylor, R., Liyanage, M., Eckhaus, M., Collins, F., Shiloh, Y., Crawley, J., Ried, T., Tagle, D. and Wynshaw-Boris, A. Atm deficient mice: A paradigm of ataxia-telangiectasia. Cell, 1996, 86 (1), 159-71.


Helen Blau

Plasticity of adult stem cells

A marrow minded view?

Brazelton, T.R., Rossi, F. M. V., Keshet, G.I. and Blau, H.M. (2000) From marrow to brain: Expression of neuronal phenotypes in adult mice. Science 290, 1775-1779.


Knock knock. Whose there? Gene. -- Gene delivery

Rossi, F. M., & Blau, H. M. (1998). Recent advances in inducible gene expression systems. Curr Opin Biotechnol 9, 451-456

Blau, H. M., & Rossi, F. M. (1999). Tet B or not tet B: advances in tetracycline-inducible gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 797-799

Rossi, F.M.V., Kringstein, A.M, Guicherit, O.M., Spicher, A. and Blau, H.M. (2000) Rheostat mechanism of transcriptional regulation converted to on/off switch. Mol. Cell 6, 723-728.

OK, now that's close enough!

.Blakely, B. T., Rossi, F. M., Tillotson, B., Palmer, M., Estelles, A., & Blau, H. M. (2000). Epidermal growth factor receptor dimerization monitored in live cells. Nat Biotechnol 18, 218-222.

Rossi, F., Charlton, C. A., and Blau, H. M. (1997). Monitoring protein-protein interactions in intact eukaryotic cells by beta-galactosidase complementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 8405-8410.



Marianne Bronner-Fraser

Induction and patterning of the neural crest

Zen and the Art of Brain repair - the answers lie within.

Bronner-Fraser M, Sternberg PW. Pattern formation and developmental mechanisms. The cell biological basis of inductive signaling. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000 Aug;10(4):347-9.

LaBonne C, Bronner-Fraser M. Molecular mechanisms of neural crest formation. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1999;15:81-112. Review.

Garcia-Castro M, Bronner-Fraser M. Induction and differentiation of the neural crest.

Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1999 Dec;11(6):695-8. Review.

Groves AK, Bronner-Fraser M. Neural crest diversification. Curr Top Dev Biol. 1999;43:221-58. Review.

LaBonne C, Bronner-Fraser M. Induction and patterning of the neural crest, a stem cell-like precursor population. J Neurobiol. 1998 Aug;36(2):175-89. Review.


Ross M Bullock

Traumatic Brain Injury

Astronomy and brain injury: The art of seeing stars.

 Al-Samsam RH, Alessandri B, Bullock R. Extracellular N-acetyl-aspartate as a biochemical marker of the severity of neuronal damage following experimental

acute traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2000 Jan;17(1):31-9.

Reinert M, Khaldi A, Zauner A, Doppenberg E, Choi S, Bullock R. High level of extracellular potassium and its correlates after severe head injury: relationship to high intracranial pressure. J Neurosurg. 2000 Nov;93(5):800-7.

Chen T, Qian YZ, Rice A, Zhu JP, Di X, Bullock R. Brain lactate uptake increases at the site of impact after traumatic brain injury. Brain Res. 2000 Apr 10;861(2):281-7.

 If you know how it broke, how come you can't fix it?

Reinert MM, Bullock R. Clinical trials in head injury. Neurol Res. 1999 Jun;21(4):330-8. Review.

Maas AI, Steyerberg EW, Murray GD, Bullock R, Baethmann A, Marshall LF, Teasdale GM. Why have recent trials of neuroprotective agents in head injury failed to show convincing efficacy? A pragmatic analysis and theoretical considerations Neurosurgery. 1999 Jun;44(6):1286-98.


Marie-Francoise Chesselet

Parkinson's Disease and the Basal Ganglia

Starting a movement.

Chesselet MF, Delfs JM. Basal ganglia and movement disorders: an update. 1996 Oct;19(10):417-22.

Chesselet MF. Presynaptic regulation of dopamine release. Implications for the functional organization of the basal ganglia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;604:17-22.

Paper or Plasticity?

Butler AK , Uryu K, Chesselet MF. A role for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the regulation of synaptogenesis and expression of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule in the developing striatum. Dev Neurosci. 1998;20(2-3):253-62.

Butler AK , Uryu K, Morehouse V, Rougon G, Chesselet MF. Regulation of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule in the developing striatum: effects of cortical lesions. J Comp Neurol 389: 289-308 (1997).

Szele FG, Chesselet MF. Cortical lesions induce an increase in cell number and PSA-NCAM expression in the subventricular zone of adult rats. J Comp Neurol 368: 439-54 (1996).

Napieralski JA, Butler AK, Chesselet MF. Anatomical and functional evidence for lesion-specific sprouting of corticostriatal input in the adult rat. J Comp Neurol 373: 484-97 (1996).

A day in the life of a Super Model

Mehta A, Thermos K, Chesselet MF. Increased behavioral response to dopaminergic stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus after nigrostriatal lesions. Synapse. 2000 Sep 15;37(4):298-307.

De Deurwaerdere P, Chesselet MF. Nigrostriatal lesions alter oral dyskinesia and c-Fos expression induced by the serotonin agonist 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine ikn adult rats. J Neurosci 20: 5170-8 (2000).


Jonas Frisen

Stem Cells and Plasticity

 A sense of identity.

Momma S, Johansson CB, Frisen J. Get to know your stem cells. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000 Feb;10(1):45-9.

Johansson CB, Svensson M, Wallstedt L, Janson AM, Frisen J. Neural stem cells in the adult human brain. Exp Cell Res. 1999 Dec 15;253(2):733-6.

Johansson CB, Momma S, Clarke DL, Risling M, Lendahl U, Frisen J. Identification of a neural stem cell in the adult mammalian central nervous system. Cell. 1999 Jan 8;96(1):25-34.

Frisen J, Johansson CB, Lothian C, Lendahl U. Central nervous system stem cells in the embryo and adult. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1998 Sep;54(9):935-45.

Identity Chrisis!

Clarke DL, Johansson CB, Wilbertz J, Veress B, Nilsson E, Karlstrom H, Lendahl U, Frisen J. Generalized potential of adult neural stem cells. Science. 2000 Jun 2;288(5471):1660-3.


Fred H. Gage

Adult stem cells and neurogenesis

But I don't wanna Grow UP!

Kempermann, G. and F. H. Gage (2000). “Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.” Novartis Found Symp231: 220-35.

Shihabuddin, L. S., P. J. Horner, J. Ray and F. H. Gage (2000). “Adult spinal cord stem cells generate neurons after transplantation in the adult dentate gyrus.” J Neurosci20(23): 8727-35.

Horner, P. J. and F. H. Gage (2000). “Regenerating the damaged central nervous system.” Nature407(6807): 963-70.


They all look the same to me…

Palmer, T. D., E. A. Markakis, A. R. Willhoite, F. Safar and F. H. Gage (1999). “Fibroblast growth factor-2 activates a latent neurogenic program in neural stem cells from diverse regions of the adult CNS.” J Neurosci19(19): 8487-97.

Anderson, D. J., F. H. Gage and I. L. Weissman (2001). “Can stem cells cross lineage boundaries?” Nat Med7(4): 393-5.


James Goldman

Glia and Migration

 Hit the road Jack.

 Kakita, A. and J. E. Goldman (1999). “Patterns and dynamics of SVZ cell migration in the postnatal forebrain: monitoring living progenitors in slice preparations.” Neuron23(3): 461-72.

Don't you look back…..

 Goldman, J. E. (2000). “Glial differentiation and lineages.” J Neurosci Res59(3): 410-2.

Levison, S. W., G. M. Young and J. E. Goldman (1999). “Cycling cells in the adult rat neocortex preferentially generate oligodendroglia.” J Neurosci Res57(4): 435-46.

Goldman, J. E., M. Zerlin, S. Newman, L. Zhang and J. Gensert (1997). “Fate determination and migration of progenitors in the postnatal mammalian CNS.” Dev Neurosci19(1): 42-8.

Levison, S. W. and J. E. Goldman (1997). “Multipotential and lineage restricted precursors coexist in the mammalian perinatal subventricular zone.” J Neurosci Res48(2): 83-94.


David Gottlieb

From ES Cells to Neurons

 In the beginning there was an ES cell…

 Gottlieb DI, Huettner JE. An in vitro pathway from embryonic stem cells to neurons and glia. Cells Tissues Organs. 1999;165(3-4):165-72.

Bain, G; Yao, M; Huettner, JE; Finley, MFA.; Gottlieb, DI Neuronlike cells derived in culture from P19 embryonal carcinoma and embryonic stem cells. In Banker, G.; Goslin, K., editors. Culturing Nerve Cells. 2nd ed. Boston: MIT Press; 1999. p. 189.

Bain G, Gottlieb DI. Neural cells derived by in vitro differentiation of P19 and embryonic stem cells. Perspect Dev Neurobiol. 1998;5(2-3):175-8.

Bain G, Ray WJ, Gottlieb DI. Retinoic acid promotes neural and represses mesodermal gene expression in mouse embryonic stem cells in culture. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1996 223:691-694.

Bain G, Kitchens D, Huettner JE, Gottlieb DI. Embryonic stem cells express neuronal properties in vitro. Dev Biol 1995 168:342-357.


Jeffery D. Kocsis

Spinal myelination, ectopic transplantation and regeneration.

 It all happens where the rubber meets the road… Akiyama Y, Honmou O, Kato T, Uede T, Hashi K, Kocsis JD. Transplantation of clonal neural precursor cells derived from adult human brain establishes functional peripheral myelin in the rat spinal cord. Exp Neurol 167: 27-39 (2001).  

Imaizumi T, Lankford KL, Burton WV, Fodor WL, Kocsis JD. Xenotransplantation of transgenic pig olfactory ensheathing cells promotes axonal regeneration in rat spinal cord. Nat Biotechnol 18: 949-53 (2000).  

Kato T, Honmou O, Uede T, Hashi K, Kocsis JD. Transplantation of human olfactory ensheathing cells elicits remyelination of demyelinated rat spinal cord. Glia 30: 209-18 (2000).  

I feel the need, the need for speed! Kohama I, Lankford KL, Preiningerova J, White FA, Vollmer TL, Kocsis JD. Transplantation of cryopreserved adult human Schwann cells enhances axonal conduction in demyelinated spinal cord. J Neurosci. 21: 944-50 (2001).  

Imaizumi T, Lankford KL, Waxman SG, Greer CA, Kocsis JD. Transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells remyelinate and enhance axonal conduction in the demyelinated dorsal columns of the rat spinal cord. J Neurosci 18: 6176-85 (1998).

Derek van der Kooy

Stem Cells and Elegans

 A stem cell primer.

Tropepe V, Hitoshi S, Sirard C, Mak TW, Rossant J, van der Kooy D. Direct neural fate specification from embryonic stem cells: a primitive mammalian neural stem cell stage acquired through a default mechanism. Neuron. 2001 Apr;30(1):65-78.

Morshead CM, van der Kooy D. A new 'spin' on neural stem cells? Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001 Feb;11(1):59-65.

van der Kooy D, Weiss S. Why stem cells? Science. 2000 Feb 25;287(5457):1439-41.


See Stem Cells.

Tropepe V, Coles BL, Chiasson BJ, Horsford DJ, Elia AJ, McInnes RR, van der Kooy D. Retinal stem cells in the adult mammalian eye. Science 287: 2032-6 (2000)

Chiasson BJ, Tropepe V, Morshead CM, van der Kooy D. Adult mammalian forebrain ependymal and subependymal cells demonstrate proliferative potential, but only subependymal cells have neural stem cell characteristics. J Neurosci 19: 4462-71 (1999).

 See stem cells run.

Martens DJ, Tropepe V, van der Kooy D. Separate proliferation kinetics of fibroblast growth factor-responsive and epidermal growth factor-responsive neural stem cells within the embryonic forebrain germinal zone. J Neurosci 20: 1085-95 (2000).

Tropepe V, Sibilia M, Ciruna BG, Rossant J, Wagner EF, van der Kooy D. Distinct neural stem cells proliferate in response to EGF and FGF in the developing mouse telencephalon. Dev Biol 208: 166-88 (1999).

Morshead CM, Craig CG, van der Kooy D. In vivo clonal analyses reveal the properties of endogenous neural stem cell proliferation in the adult mammalian forebrain. Development 125: 2251-61 (1998).

See elegans. See elegans run….

Morrison GE, van der Kooy D. A mutation in the AMPA-type glutamate receptor, glr-1, blocks olfactory associative and nonassociative learning in Caenorhabditis elegans. Behav Neurosci. 2001 Jun;115(3):640-9.

Bernhard N, van der Kooy D. A behavioral and genetic dissection of two forms of olfactory plasticity in Caenorhabditis elegans: adaptation and habituation. Learn Mem. 2000 Jul-Aug;7(4):199-212.

Harley Kornblum

Precursor Biology and Genomic Coding

And now, with my secret decoder ring….

Geschwind DH, Ou J, Easterday MC, Dougherty JD, Jackson RL, Chen Z, Antoine H, Terskikh A, Weissman IL, Nelson SF, Kornblum HI. A genetic analysis of neural progenitor differentiation. Neuron. 2001 Feb;29(2):325-39.

Terskikh AV, Easterday MC, Li L, Hood L, Kornblum HI, Geschwind DH, Weissman IL. From hematopoiesis to neuropoiesis: evidence of overlapping genetic programs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jul 3;98(14):7934-9.

Well, it either means the Xenons are coming or lunch is ready.

Irvin DK, Zurcher SD, Nguyen T, Weinmaster G, Kornblum HI. Expression patterns of Notch1, Notch2, and Notch3 suggest multiple functional roles for the Notch-DSL signaling system during brain development. J Comp Neurol. 2001 Jul 23;436(2):167-81.

Kornblum HI, Yanni DS, Easterday MC, Seroogy KB. Expression of the EGF receptor family members ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4 in germinal zones of the developing brain and in neurosphere cultures containing CNS stem cells. Dev Neurosci. 2000;22(1-2):16-24.

 Kornblum HI, Hussain R, Wiesen J, Miettinen P, Zurcher SD, Chow K, Derynck R, Werb Z. Abnormal astrocyte development and neuronal death in mice lacking the epidermal growth factor receptor. J Neurosci Res. 1998 Sep 15;53(6):697-717.

 What we really need is a little "In" sight into the situation.

Kornblum HI, Araujo DM, Annala AJ, Tatsukawa KJ, Phelps ME, Cherry SR. In vivo imaging of neuronal activation and plasticity in the rat brain by high resolution positron emission tomography (microPET). Nat Biotechnol. 2000 Jun;18(6):655-60.


Marla B. Luskin

SVZ, neuroblasts and migration

Going somewhere?

Luskin MB . Neuroblasts of the postnatal mammalian forebrain: their phenotype and fate. J Neurobiol. 1998 Aug;36(2):221-33.  

Coskun V, Venkatraman G, Yang H, Rao MS, Luskin MB. Retroviral manipulation of the expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor Ia by SVZa progenitor cells leads to changes in their p19(INK4d) expression but not in their neuronal commitment. Int J Dev Neurosci 19: 291-27 (2001).  

Law AK, Pencea V, Buck CR, Luskin MB. Neurogenesis and neuronal migration in the neonatal rat forebrain anterior subventricular zone do not require GFAP-positive astrocytes. Dev Biol 216: 622-34 (1999).  

Zigova T, Betarbet R, Soteres BJ, Brock S, Bakay RA, Luskin MB. A comparison of the patterns of migration and the destinations of homotopically transplanted neonatal subventricular zone cells and heterotopically transplanted telencephalic ventricular zone cells. Dev Biol 173: 459-74 (1996).  

Umm, excuse me…am I allowed to change my mind?

Yang H, Mujtaba T, Venkatraman G, Wu YY, Rao MS, Luskin MB. Region-specific differentiation of neural tube-derived neuronal restricted progenitor cells after heterotopic transplantation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 13366-71 (2000).  

Zigova T, Pencea V, Betarbet R, Wiegand SJ, Alexander C, Bakay RA, Luskin MB. Neuronal progenitor cells of the neonatal subventricular zone differentiate and disperse following transplantation into the adult rat striatum. Cell Transplant 7: 137-56 (1998).

Ronald D.G. McKay

ES cells and Neural Stem Cells

OK, let's start again at the beginning…

Lee SH, Lumelsky N, Studer L, Auerbach JM, McKay RD. Efficient generation of midbrain and hindbrain neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 18: 675-9 (2000).  

Brustle O, Jones KN, Learish RD, Karram K, Choudhary K, Wiestler OD, Duncan ID, McKay RD. Embryonic stem cell-derived glial precursors: a source of myelinating transplants. Science 285: 754-6 (1999).  

Okabe S, Forsberg-Nilsson K, Spiro AC, Segal M, McKay RD. Development of neuronal precursor cells and functional postmitotic neurons from embryonic stem cells in vitro. Mech Dev. 1996 Sep;59(1):89-102.  

Somewhere in the middle… Yan J, Studer L, McKay RD. Ascorbic acid increases the yield of dopaminergic neurons derived from basic fibroblast growth factor expanded mesencephalic precursors. J Neurochem. 2001 Jan;76(1):307-11.  

Auerbach JM, Eiden MV, McKay RD. Transplanted CNS stem cells form functional synapses in vivo. Eur J Neurosci 12: 1696-704 (2000).  

Tsai RY, McKay RD. Cell contact regulates fate choice by cortical stem cells. J Neurosci 20: 3725-35 (2000).   Rajan P, McKay RD. Multiple routes to astrocytic differentiation in the CNS. J Neurosci 18: 3620-9 (1998).  

The end. Cameron HA, McKay RD. Adult neurogenesis produces a large pool of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus. J Comp Neurol. 2001 Jul 9;435(4):406-17.   Cameron HA, McKay RD. Restoring production of hippocampal neurons in old age. Nat Neurosci. 1999 Oct;2(10):894-7.

Mark Noble

More Glial Biology (or something).

In the beginning,….

Rao, M. S., M. Noble and M. Mayer-Proschel (1998). “A tripotential glial precursor cell is present in the developing spinal cord.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A95(7): 3996-4001.

…and on the 7 th day….

Noble, M. (2000). “Precursor cell transitions in oligodendrocyte development.” J Cell Biol148(5): 839-42.

Ibarrola, N., M. Mayer-Proschel, A. Rodriguez-Pena and M. Noble (1996). “Evidence for the existence of at least two timing mechanisms that contribute to oligodendrocyte generation in vitro.” Dev Biol180(1): 1-21

Yakovlev, A. Y., K. Boucher, M. Mayer-Proschel and M. Noble (1998). “Quantitative insight into proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte type 2 astrocyte progenitor cells in vitro.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A95(24): 14164-7.

….. time stood still.

Noble, M. and M. Mayer-Proschel (1997). “Growth factors, glia and gliomas.” J Neurooncol35(3): 193-209.


Pasko Rakic

From embryo to adult: An ongoing developmental paradigm?

A never-ending story?

Kornack, D. R., and P. Rakic. 1999. Continuation of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the adult macaque monkey. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 96:5768-73.

Now, you go here. You, do this.

Donoghue, M. J., and P. Rakic. 1999. Molecular gradients and compartments in the embryonic primate cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex. 9:586-600.

Haydar, T. F., F. Wang, M. L. Schwartz, and P. Rakic. 2000. Differential modulation of proliferation in the neocortical ventricular and subventricular zones. J Neurosci. 20:5764-74.

It takes all kinds.

Kuan, C. Y., E. A. Elliott, R. A. Flavell, and P. Rakic. 1997. Restrictive clonal allocation in the chimeric mouse brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 94:3374-9.

Levitt, P., M. L. Cooper, and P. Rakic. 1981. Coexistence of neuronal and glial precursor cells in the cerebral ventricular zone of the fetal monkey: an ultrastructural immunoperoxidase analysis. J Neurosci. 1:27-39.

 And some simply don't make it…

Kuan, C. Y., K. A. Roth, R. A. Flavell, and P. Rakic. 2000. Mechanisms of programmed cell death in the developing brain. Trends Neurosci. 23:291-7.


Bruce Ransom

Axon injury

 Back to basics

Fern, R. and B. R. Ransom (1997). “Ischemic injury of optic nerve axons: the nuts and bolts.” Clin Neurosci4(5): 246-50.

Brown, A. M., R. E. Westenbroek, W. A. Catterall and B. R. Ransom (2001). “Axonal L-type Ca2+ channels and anoxic injury in rat CNS white matter.” J Neurophysiol 85(2): 900-11.

I'm given er all she's got Capt'n but the dilithium crystals are gonna blow!

Wender, R., A. M. Brown, R. Fern, R. A. Swanson, K. Farrell and B. R. Ransom (2000). “Astrocytic glycogen influences axon function and survival during glucose deprivation in central white matter.” J Neurosci 20(18): 6804-10.

Ransom, B. R. and R. Fern (1997). “Does astrocytic glycogen benefit axon function and survival in CNS white matter during glucose deprivation?” Glia21(1): 134-41.

Fern, R., P. Davis, S. G. Waxman and B. R. Ransom (1998). “Axon conduction and survival in CNS white matter during energy deprivation: a developmental study.” J Neurophysiol79(1): 95-105.

Rose, C. R., S. G. Waxman and B. R. Ransom (1998). “Effects of glucose deprivation, chemical hypoxia, and simulated ischemia on Na+ homeostasis in rat spinal cord astrocytes.” J Neurosci18(10): 3554-62.

Brad Stokes

Spinal Injury

 Look Ma, no hands….

Ma, M., D. M. Basso, P. Walters, B. T. Stokes and L. B. Jakeman (2001). “Behavioral and histological outcomes following graded spinal cord contusion injury in the c57bl/6 mouse.” Exp Neurol169(2): 239-54.

McTigue, D. M., P. G. Popovich, L. B. Jakeman and B. T. Stokes (2000). “Strategies for spinal cord injury repair.” Prog Brain Res128: 3-8.


Popovich, P. G., Z. Guan, P. Wei, I. Huitinga, N. van Rooijen and B. T. Stokes (1999). “Depletion of hematogenous macrophages promotes partial hindlimb recovery and neuroanatomical repair after experimental spinal cord injury.” Exp Neurol158(2): 351-65.

Popovich, P. G., P. Wei and B. T. Stokes (1997). “Cellular inflammatory response after spinal cord injury in Sprague-Dawley and Lewis rats.” J Comp Neurol377(3): 443-64.


Streit, W. J., S. L. Semple-Rowland, S. D. Hurley, R. C. Miller, P. G. Popovich and B. T. Stokes (1998). “Cytokine mRNA profiles in contused spinal cord and axotomized facial nucleus suggest a beneficial role for inflammation and gliosis.” Exp Neurol152(1): 74-87.


Clive Svendsen

Human neural stem cells.

What does it take to get your attention!?

Ciccolini, F., and C. N. Svendsen. 1998. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) promotes acquisition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) responsiveness in mouse striatal precursor cells: identification of neural precursors responding to both EGF and FGF-2. J Neurosci. 18:7869-80.

 Caldwell, M. A., X. He, N. Wilkie, S. Pollack, G. Marshall, K. A. Wafford, and C. N. Svendsen. 2001. Growth factors regulate the survival and fate of cells derived from human neurospheres. Nat Biotechnol. 19:475-9.

Svendsen, C. N., M. A. Caldwell, and T. Ostenfeld. 1999. Human neural stem cells: isolation, expansion and transplantation. Brain Pathol. 9:499-513.

A cut above…

Svendsen, C. N., M. G. ter Borg, R. J. Armstrong, A. E. Rosser, S. Chandran, T. Ostenfeld, and M. A. Caldwell. 1998. A new method for the rapid and long term growth of human neural precursor cells. J Neurosci Methods. 85:141-52.

All I need is a change of scenery.

Bjorklund, A., and C. N. Svendsen. 2001. Chimeric stem cells. Trends Mol Med. 7:144-6.

Now that I'm here, what do I do?

Svendsen CN, Caldwell MA. Neural stem cells in the developing central nervous system: implications for cell therapy through transplantation. Prog Brain Res. 2000;127:13-34.

Armstrong, R. J., C. Watts, C. N. Svendsen, S. B. Dunnett, and A. E. Rosser. 2000. Survival, neuronal differentiation, and fiber outgrowth of propagated human neural precursor grafts in an animal model of Huntington's disease. Cell Transplant. 9:55-64.

Svendsen CN, Caldwell MA, Shen J, ter Borg MG, Rosser AE, Tyers P, Karmiol S, Dunnett SB. Long-term survival of human central nervous system progenitor cells transplanted into a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 1997 Nov;148(1):135-46.


Leon Thal

Alzheimer's Disease

 What is all this stuff, anyway?

Olichney, J. M., L. A. Hansen, D. Galasko, T. Saitoh, C. R. Hofstetter, R. Katzman, and L. J. Thal. 1996. The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele is associated with increased neuritic plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body variant. Neurology. 47:190-6.

Olichney, J. M., L. A. Hansen, J. H. Lee, C. R. Hofstetter, R. Katzman, and L. J. Thal. 2000. Relationship between severe amyloid angiopathy, apolipoprotein E genotype, and vascular lesions in Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 903:138-43.

So, can you fix it?

Tiraboschi, P., L. A. Hansen, M. Alford, E. Masliah, L. J. Thal, and J. Corey-Bloom. 2000. The decline in synapses and cholinergic activity is asynchronous in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 55:1278-83.

Thal, L. J. 2000. Trials to slow progression and prevent disease onset. J Neural Transm Suppl. 59:243-9.

Winkler, J., L. J. Thal, F. H. Gage, and L. J. Fisher. 1998. Cholinergic strategies for Alzheimer's disease. J Mol Med. 76:555-67.

Alan Tobin

Huntington's Disease and GABA

 Mission Possible

Tobin AJ, Signer ER. Huntington's disease: the challenge for cell biologists. Trends Cell Biol. 2000 Dec;10(12):531-6.

Your assignment, should you choose to accept…

Alexi T, Hughes PE, Knusel B, Tobin AJ. Metabolic compromise with systemic 3-nitropropionic acid produces striatal apoptosis in Sprague-Dawley rats but not in BALB/c ByJ mice. Exp Neurol. 1998 Sep;153(1):74-93.

Thompson K, Anantharam V, Behrstock S, Bongarzone E, Campagnoni A, Tobin AJ. Conditionally immortalized cell lines, engineered to produce and release GABA, modulate the development of behavioral seizures. Exp Neurol. 2000 Feb;161(2):481-9.

Davis KM, Foos T, Bates CS, Tucker E, Hsu CC, Chen W, Jin H, Tyburski JB, Schloss JV, Tobin AJ, Wu JY. A novel method for expression and large-scale production of human brain l-glutamate decarboxylase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Jan 27;267(3):777-82.

Mi J, Chatterjee S, Wong KK, Forbes C, Lawless G, Tobin AJ. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) drives constitutive production of glutamate decarboxylase in neural cell lines. J Neurosci Res. 1999 Jul 1;57(1):137-48.

Patrick Tresco

Biomaterials and implantation

 Time capsules.

Aebischer, P., S. R. Winn, P. A. Tresco, C. B. Jaeger, and L. A. Greene. 1991. Transplantation of polymer encapsulated neurotransmitter secreting cells: effect of the encapsulation technique. J Biomech Eng . 113:178-83.

Jaeger, C. B., S. R. Winn, P. A. Tresco, and P. Aebischer. 1991. Repair of the blood-brain barrier following implantation of polymer capsules. Brain Res. 551:163-70.

We have the technology. We can rebuild…

Dubach, M., M. E. Anderson, and P. A. Tresco. 1998. Extended local access fibers: adjustable treatment of deep sites in the brain. J Neurosci Methods. 85:187-200.

Winn, S. R., P. A. Tresco, B. Zielinski, L. A. Greene, C. B. Jaeger, and P. Aebischer. 1991. Behavioral recovery following intrastriatal implantation of microencapsulated PC12 cells. Exp Neurol. 113:322-9.

Bruhn, T. O., P. A. Tresco, and I. M. Jackson. 1991. Transplantation of fetal growth hormone-releasing factor-immunoreactive neurons into the ventricular system of adult MSG-treated rats. Peptides. 12:957-61.


Angelo Vescovi

Stem cell plasticity

 The story according to mouse.

Gritti, A., E. A. Parati, L. Cova, P. Frolichsthal, R. Galli, E. Wanke, L. Faravelli, D. J. Morassutti, F. Roisen, D. D. Nickel, and A. L. Vescovi. 1996. Multipotential stem cells from the adult mouse brain proliferate and self-renew in response to basic fibroblast growth factor. J Neurosci. 16:1091-100.

 …but there's more…

Bjornson, C. R., R. L. Rietze, B. A. Reynolds, M. C. Magli, and A. L. Vescovi. 1999. Turning brain into blood: a hematopoietic fate adopted by adult neural stem cells in vivo. Science . 283:534-7.

 ….don't stop now!

Galli, R., U. Borello, A. Gritti, M. G. Minasi, C. Bjornson, M. Coletta, M. Mora, M. G. De Angelis, R. Fiocco, G. Cossu, and A. L. Vescovi. 2000. Skeletal myogenic potential of human and mouse neural stem cells. Nat Neurosci. 3:986-91.

Of nouse and nan.

Vescovi, A. L., E. A. Parati, A. Gritti, P. Poulin, M. Ferrario, E. Wanke, P. Frolichsthal-Schoeller, L. Cova, M. Arcellana-Panlilio, A. Colombo, and R. Galli. 1999. Isolation and cloning of multipotential stem cells from the embryonic human CNS and establishment of transplantable human neural stem cell lines by epigenetic stimulation. Exp Neurol. 156:71-83.

Hey, wait a minute…likes attract?

Benedetti, S., B. Pirola, B. Pollo, L. Magrassi, M. G. Bruzzone, D. Rigamonti, R. Galli, S. Selleri, F. Di Meco, C. De Fraja, A. Vescovi, E. Cattaneo, and G. Finocchiaro. 2000. Gene therapy of experimental brain tumors using neural progenitor cells. Nat Med. 6:447-50.

Irving Weissman

Stem cells, lineage and fate.

 You mean there's more than one?

Weissman, I. L. 2000. Stem cells: units of development, units of regeneration, and units in evolution. Cell. 100:157-68.

Morrison, S. J., H. D. Hemmati, A. M. Wandycz, and I. L. Weissman. 1995. The purification and characterization of fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 92:10302-6.

Uchida, N., D. W. Buck, D. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman. 2000. Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97:14720-5.

 Just how different are they, really….

Anderson, D. J., F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman. 2001. Can stem cells cross lineage boundaries? Nat Med. 7:393-5.

Geschwind, D. H., J. Ou, M. C. Easterday, J. D. Dougherty, R. L. Jackson, Z. Chen, H. Antoine, A. Terskikh, I. L. Weissman, S. F. Nelson, and H. I. Kornblum. 2001. A genetic analysis of neural progenitor differentiation. Neuron. 29:325-39.


01 Summit Topic / 01 Speakers / 01 Schedule / 01 Location / 01 Participants and Proposals


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